Since the worldwide outbreak of coronavirus, face masks seem to have become an essential part of the fight against the spread. But the production of masks has been affected by the shutdown of workforces all over the world, yet demand for face masks has never been higher. Shortages of surgical protections are being reported worldwide, including in the UK. New research suggests masks could be more vital in helping stop the spread of infection than previously thought, and experts in China recommend that everyone should wear one. In other countries like Japan and Hong Kong, people are advised to wear them if they are going to be in a crowded area. But why and where to buy face masks in Kenya and what protection do they offer?
What experts agree on
When it comes to masks, there is strong agreement that N95 respirators (the kind of mask that requires fit testing) protect trained healthcare providers from getting infected through airborne and droplet particles in the healthcare setting. Surgical face masks help prevent the spread of infections through droplets among healthcare workers. There is also evidence that surgical masks help prevent sick people from infecting healthy people. Experts also recognize that right now there are major shortages of protective face masks and respirators for frontline healthcare staff, so the general public should help by staying home and potentially donating their supplies to hospitals until more masks become available.
How masks work
Basically, there are two major types of masks.
Surgical masks fit loosely in front of your mouth and nose. They are good at protecting others from droplets leaving the wearer’s mouth and offer some protection if someone sneezes or coughs around you. Again, because they are not airtight, airborne particles (particles that hang in the air) can still enter your mouth or nose when you breathe. From what we know so far, it is still not clear whether COVID-19 can be spread through airborne particles; WHO has put out information stating that this is not an airborne virus, but there is data that it can be aerosolized.
Respirators (people commonly hear of the N95 respirator) are meant to have a tight seal around the mouth and nose. They can prevent outgoing droplets, incoming droplets, and airborne particles, so they are ideal for hospital workers that are in very close contact with sick people with certain conditions (especially when they are doing procedures). With the data on surgical masks’ effectiveness in preventing infections right now, we are basing what we know on data from the spread of other infections (like flu and SARS). It’s too early to have any definitive data from the COVID 19 pandemic.
Lady wearing an N95 mask with a respirator. Photo: Shutterstock.
There are a bunch of studies to show that face masks can be effective at preventing infection among healthcare staff in the hospital setting, even compared to N95 respirators. During the SARS epidemic one study found that 0% of healthcare workers that wore a surgical face mask or respirator got infected (7% of those who wore a DIY paper mask did get infected).
When it comes to the general population in the “real” world, it’s much harder to say. Studies looking at face masks to prevent the spread of infection among family when one member was sick found that people were not consistent about using them, took them off after a few hours, and may not have done all the other things (like handwashing) to protect themselves. But in situations where people did follow instructions and wore the masks appropriately, there did seem to be a benefit in reducing the spread of infection.
When it comes to N95 masks, they are only as effective as the seal. So, ideally, healthcare workers should be wearing them with a complete seal, especially if they are doing high-risk procedures. If they are not worn correctly and are not tightly sealed, there seems to be a very limited difference for healthcare workers (and by extension, the general population) between wearing a surgical mask and N95.
Surgical face masks. Photo: Shutterstock.
What to know if you want to make a DIY mask
After the H1N1flu pandemic of 2009, researchers at Cambridge University tested a whole range of household materials for DIY masks using particles both larger and smaller than the size of the new coronavirus.
They found that surgical masks worked really well- blocking 97% of large (bacteria-size particles) and around 80% of particles smaller than the coronavirus. But some materials for DIY masks also performed pretty well (for large particles: vacuum cleaner bags (95%), dishcloths (83%) and 100% cotton shirts (69%) and for small particles: 100% cotton shirts (50%)). They also tested for breathability, a key ingredient for successful use of a face mask, and found that 100% cotton t-shirts and pillowcases were the best. Taken together, this information shows that wearing a face-covering made from 100% cotton can be better than nothing. But remember, we don’t have any studies in the real-life setting, so this is a “maybe”!
Masks do not work forever and should not be reused.
The WHO adds that masks should be removed if they get wet, and the front should not be touched.
Once you have covered your mouth and nose with the mask, you should ensure there are no gaps between it and your face.
As well as this advice on masks, the NHS says other methods to help prevent the spread of the disease include putting tissues in the bin straight away, covering your mouth and nose with your sleeve (not hands) when you sneeze, washing your hands with an alcohol-based hand rub or soap and water often and avoiding people who are ill.
Dr. Nilsen concludes: “Good hand hygiene is a prerequisite for any facial masks to work as the hands are needed to place the mask correctly over the mouth and nose.
“Any virus particles on the hands would be transferred to the mouth, nose, or eyes when putting on the facial masks if not washed and disinfected beforehand.
“N95-facial masks can be additional protection for those at risk but must never replace good hand hygiene practices.”
What about wearing a mask during the COVID-19 pandemic?
We know that the new coronavirus can be spread by people without symptoms and that symptoms can develop after 5 days (sometimes even longer). In this situation, it makes sense to wear a face mask if you have to go into a crowded area, especially for those who are at higher risk of complications (older people, those with a long-term medical condition, people with weakened immune systems, and pregnant women). Right now, since healthcare workers so desperately need masks to protect themselves, everyone that can stay home so they don’t need to use them. As the supply of masks grows, it seems reasonable for people to wear face masks if they need to be around others.The key is to remember that all of the other recommendations still stand: don’t touch your face, wash your hands, and dispose of the face-covering safely without contaminating yourself. While some do disagree about the role of face masks in protecting the general public from COVID-19, all experts agree that the main ways to protect ourselves are frequent, vigorous handwashing, disinfecting high-touch surfaces, keeping a distance of 6 feet from others, and staying away from sick people. Additionally, the main way that the general public can help during this pandemic is to maintain social distancing and stop going out for anything “non-essential.” To order for all types of masks, kindly contact us on0759292158, 0103055943, 0742448334, 0756432285, or drop an email to .
Magacha Thomas is the Founder & Chief Executive Officer of Imagine Care Brands. He currently offers consultations to startups on Public Health, Agrochemicals, Sanitary Waste, Advertising, E-Commerce, SEO, CPC, PPC, Google Workspace, & Cryptocurrency Trading. Wanna chat? +254 734912982 or .